Đọc và trả lời câu hỏi there are many sources of pollution in our modern world

     

Limit walking on busy streets during rush hour – và if you have a young child with you, try to lift them up above the level of vehicle exhausts


While particles with a diameter of 10 microns or less, (≤ PM10) can penetrate và lodge deep inside the lungs, the even more health-damaging particles are those with a diameter of 2.5 microns or less, (≤ PM2.5). These particles are so small that 60 of them 3d the width of a human hair.

PM2.5can penetrate the lung barrier and enter the blood system. They can increase the risk of heart & respiratory diseases, as well as lung cancer.

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Ozone is a major factor in causing asthma (or making it worse), & nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide can also cause asthma, bronchial symptoms, lung inflammation & reduced lung function.


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So how polluted can air be before it starts to lớn affect our health? For PM2.5, gamize.vn guidelines say the maximum safe cấp độ is an annual average concentration of 10 μg/m3 or less. To lớn encourage cities to reduce air pollution, even if they are unable to lớn meet the ideal safe levels, gamize.vn has mix three interim targets for cities. These are: 15 μg/m3 (interim target 3); 25 μg/m3 (interim target 2); 35 μg/m3 (interim target 1). Many cities are now exceeding the very upper màn chơi of interim target 1.

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Air pollution has a disastrous effect on children. Worldwide, up to 14% of children aged 5 – 18 years have asthma relating to lớn factors including air pollution. Every year, 543 000 children*younger than 5 years die of respiratory disease linked to lớn air pollution. Air pollution is also linked to lớn childhood cancers. Pregnant women are exposed to lớn air pollution, it can affect fetal brain growth. Air pollution is also linked to cognitiveimpairment in both children & adults.*Number updated to reflect new numbers published by gamize.vn on 29 October 2018


As well as affecting our health, pollutants in the air are also causing long-term environmental damage by driving climate change, itself a major threat khổng lồ health và well-being.

This month, the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned that coal-fired electricity must end by 2050 if we are to lớn limit global warming rises to lớn 1.5C. If not, we may see a major climate crisis in just trăng tròn years.


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The conference next week will hotline for urgent action, seeking agreement on a target for reducing deaths from air pollution.

gamize.vn and partners such as UN Environment are developing ways to tư vấn countries. For example, gamize.vn is developing a toolkit (the Clean Household Energy Solutions Toolkit, CHEST) to help countries implement gamize.vn’s recommendations on household fuel combustion và to develop policies to expand clean household energy use.

BreatheLife– a global campaign for clean air, headed by gamize.vn, the Climate và Clean Air Coalition, và UN Environment – is mobilizing communities to reduce the impact of air pollution in cities, regions & countries, currently reaching around 97 million people.

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Clean air interventions will be a focus of the conference. Affordable strategies exist khổng lồ reduce emissions from energy, transport, waste management, housing và industrial sectors. These interventions often carry other benefits lượt thích reduced traffic và noise, increased physical activity and better land use – all of which contribute to improving health và well-being. The conference will present activities và results from the ongoing work of the gamize.vn’s Urban Health Initiativefocused on supporting cities with the data, tools and capacity to lớn select, implement và track ‘clean & healthy’ policies at the thành phố level. Better air unique will benefit all of us, everywhere.