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Should I use the simple past or the past perfect when describing an antecedent lớn a past event? For example:

Laura passed her exam because she studied very hardLaura passed her exam because she had studied very hard


I think either would be just as correct. However, as khổng lồ which sounds more natural: lớn me at least, the latter size using past perfect (had studied) is clearer, because you"re emphasizing that the studying occurred before the exam was passed.

From Wikipedia:

is used lớn refer lớn an occurrence that at a past time had already been started.

So lớn emphasize that the studying had been done before the exam (which also occurred in the past), you can use past perfect.

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In "Laura passed her exam because she studied very hard", "she studied" is past tense, so it means that at some point in the past, she studied.

In "Laura passed her exam because she had studied very hard", "she had studied" is past perfect tense, so it means that at some point in that past, she studied, but that she definitely had finished studying before the statement was made.

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Both are entirely correct & natural sounding, but have VERY slightly different nuances, depending on context.

The second size may possibly be being used in a comparison with someone who didn"t study as hard, or it may be being used in comparison with more recent times, for example.


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